Land mine | Wikipedia audio article

Land mine | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:01:39 1 Definition
00:04:21 2 History
00:04:51 2.1 Before explosives
00:07:06 2.2 Gunpowder
00:07:14 2.2.1 East Asia
00:09:36 2.2.2 Europe and the United States
00:12:41 2.3 High explosives
00:14:26 2.3.1 Between the Civil War and the First World War
00:15:23 2.3.2 First World War
00:16:54 2.3.3 Second World War
00:21:13 2.3.4 Cold War
00:25:36 2.4 Chemical and nuclear
00:27:32 3 Characteristics and function
00:28:01 3.1 Firing mechanisms and initiating actions
00:29:47 3.2 Anti-handling devices
00:30:51 4 Anti-tank mines
00:31:57 5 Anti-personnel mines
00:33:03 6 Warfare
00:36:22 6.1 Guerrilla warfare
00:38:08 6.2 Laying mines
00:40:29 7 Demining
00:43:01 8 International treaties
00:46:26 9 Manufacturers
00:47:25 10 Impacts
00:47:41 10.1 Casualties
00:48:35 10.2 Environmental
00:49:04 10.3 Land degradation
00:49:51 10.3.1 Access denial
00:51:18 10.3.2 Loss of biodiversity
00:52:10 10.3.3 Chemical contamination
00:53:04 11 See also

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Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B

“I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.”
– Socrates

Not to be confused with parachute mines which were known as “land mines” in the UK during The Blitz.

A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it. Such a device is typically detonated automatically by way of pressure when a target steps on it or drives over it, although other detonation mechanisms are also sometimes used. A land mine may cause damage by direct blast effect, by fragments that are thrown by the blast, or by both.
The use of land mines is controversial because of their potential as indiscriminate weapons. They can remain dangerous many years after a conflict has ended, harming civilians and the economy. 78 countries are contaminated with land mines and 15,000–20,000 people are killed every year while countless more are maimed. Approximately 80% of land mine casualties are civilian, with children as the most affected age group. Most killings occur in times of peace. With pressure from a number of campaign groups organised through the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, a global movement to prohibit their use led to the 1997 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, also known as the Ottawa Treaty. To date, 164 nations have signed the treaty, but these do not include China, the Russian Federation, and the United States.